MCQs on Restoration Period for UGC, UGB, CBCS, NET SET JRF

The Restoration Period

 (1660-1700) 

Drama was the most popular trend in the Restoration period. The Heroic Drama and the Comedy of Manners were the two most popular genre of the drama of this age. John Dryden was the main exponent of heroic drama. Besides, two great diarists, John Evelyn and Samuel Pepys belong to this period. One of the most popular texts of this age was Butler's 'Hudibras' which ridiculed the Puritans.

 [Important Dates and Events of the Period]

° Theatres reopened in 1660 (were closed in 1642)

° Great Plague of London (1665-1666)

° The Great fire of London (1666)

° 'The Royal Society ' was established in 1662

° Glorious Revolution (1688-1689)

° 'Nine Years War' (1688-1697)

° James ll ascended the throne in 1685

° William lll romoved James ll in 1688 and took the throne over 1689. This act is known as "Glorious Revolution".


Poets of the Restoration Age and their Literary Works:

The main poets of this age were John Dryden and Samuel Butler. The poetry of the Restoration period was formal, intellectual, satirical, realistic and written in heroic couplet, of which Dryden was the supreme master. Dryden is the deminating figure of this age. He laid the foundation of the classical school of poetry in England. His poetry can be easily divided under three heads:

1. Political Satires [ Absalom and Achitophel, The Medal]

2. Doctrinal Poems [Religio Laici, The Hind and the Panther

3. The Fables [Thalamon and Arcite.]

John Dryden (1631-1700)

English poet, playwright and critic John Dryden wrote his first verse, an elegy 'Upon the Death of Lord Hastings' and contributed it for Lachrymac Musarum (1649).

Major works of Dryden

* Absalom and Achitophel (a satire, 1681)
* The Hind and the Panther ( Allegorical poem 1687)
* Mac Flecknoe (a satire, 1682)
* Religio Laici (a didactic poem, 1682) 
* The Indian Emperor ( tragedy, 1665)
* Annus Mirabilis ( poem, 1667)
* The Enchanded Island ( comedy, 1667)
* Secret Love, or The Maiden Queen         (1667)
* An Essay on Dramatick Poesie (1668)
* An Evening's Love (comedy, 1668)
* Marriage a la Mode (1672)
* Aureng-zebe (1675)
* All for Love (1678)
* Oedipus ( heroic Drama, 1679)
* The Medel (1682)
* Love Triumphant (1694)
* The Works of Virgil (1697)
* Alexader's Feast (1697)
* Fables, Ancient and Modern (1700)

Samuel Butler (1613-1680)

English poet and satirist Samuel Butler is best known for his mock heroic poem, Hudibras, a satire on the Cromwellins and on the Presbyterian Church. 

His Major Works

* The Lord Roos His answer to the Marquess of Dorchester's Letter (1660)
* Hudibras: 1st part ( 1663)
* Hudibras; 2nd part ( 1664)
* Two letters ( 1672)
* Hudibras: final part (1678)
* Characters (1759)




Dramatists of the Restoration Age
(1660-1700)

The main dramatists of the Restoration Period were George Etherege, William Wycherley, William Congreve, Aphra Behn, John Vanbrugh and George Farquhar. Their literary works are given below:

George Etherege ( 1635-1691)

Major Works-
* The Comical Revenge or Love in a Tub
   (1664)
* She Would If She Could (1668)
* The Man of Mode (1676)


William Wycherley (1640-1715)

Major Works-
* Love in a Wood (1671)
* The Country Wife (acted in 1675)
* The Plain Dealer (1677)
* The Gentleman Dancing Master (1672)


William Congreve ( 1670-1729)

English poet and playwright William Congreve wrote his first romantic novel 'Incognito' published in 1692. His best known play was ' The Way of the World'.

 Major Wirks-

* Incognito ( pub. 1692)
* The Old Bachelor (1693)
* The Double-Dealer
* Love for Love
* The Morning Bride
* The Way of the World


Aphra Behn (1640-1689)

 She is considered to be the first professional woman writer. She wrote plays, novels, short stories and poetry.

Major Works-
PLAYS
* The Forced Marriage ( 1670)
* The Amorous Prince (1671)
* The Dutch Lover ( (1673)
* Abdelazer ( 1676)
* The Town Fop ( 1676)
* The Rover ( part-1 1677 , part-2 in 1681)
* Sir Patient Fancy ( 1678)
* The Young King ( 1679)
* The Roundheads ( 1681)
* The City Heiress (1682)
* Like Father, Like Son ( 1682)
* The Emperor of the Moon (1687)

NOVELS
* Love Letters between a Nobleman and His Sister (1684)
* Oroonoko ( 1688 )

[Oroonoko is a short novel about an African prince, Oroonoko who falls in love with a young woman, Imoinda.]

[The History of the Nun > tells about an anti-heroine Isabella whose reputation for piousness motivates her to murder]

[The Dumb Virgin > tells the story of the sisters and a brother whose defects both in body and fate ate engendered by their mother's failure to comfirm to the correct paradigm of maternal behaviour.]

SHORT STORIES

* The History of the Nun: or, The Vow-Breaker (1688)
* The Dumb Virgin: or, The Force of Imagination (1700)

POETRY
Poems upon Several Occasions, with A Voyage to the Island of Love (1684)
* Lycidus: or, The Lover in Fashion (1688)

John Bunyan (1628-1688

Major Works-
* A Few Signs from Hell or 'The Groans of a Damned Soul (1658)
* The Holy City or The New Jerusalem (1666)
* Saved by Grace (1675)
* The Strait Gate, Great Difficulty of Going to Heaven (1676)
* The Pilgrim's Progress (1678)
* The Life and Death of Mr Badman (1680)
* The Holy War (1682)
* Grace Abounding (1666)


John Vanbrugh (1664-1726)

He was an architect and English dramatist of the Restoration Age. When he was in imprisonment he wrote his first comedy 'The Relapse: or Virtue in Danger' followed by another play, 'The Provok'd Wife'. He was first a playwright and then he changed his career into architecture.

Major Works-
* The Relapse: or The Virtue in Danger (1696)
* The Provok'd Wife (1697)
* Aesop (1697)
* The False Friend (1702)
* The Confederacy (1702)
* The Mistake (1705)

George Farquhar ( 1677-1707)

He was a playwright. His first comedy, Love and a Bottle (1698) which was first performed at Drury Lane in 1699. He wrote his masterpiece 'The Beaux' Stratagem' when he was taking his last breath of his life.

Major Works-
* Love and a Bottle (1698)
* The Constant Couple (1699)
* Harry Wildair (1701)
* The Inconstant (1702)
* The Twin Rivals (1702)
* The Recruiting Officer (1706)
* Beaux' Stratagem (1707)


John Locke (1632-1704) 

 He is famous as the author of a single great philosophical work, the Essay concerning Human Understanding (1690). This is a study of the nature of the human mind.

EVELYN AND PEPYS. These two men, John Evelyn (1620-1706) and Samuel Pepys (1633-1703), are famous as the writers of diaries. Evelyn was the author of Sylva, the first book on trees and forestry in English, and Terra, which is the first attempt at a scientific study of agriculture. ✍️


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